Prediction of Postoperative Sepsis Based on Changes in Presepsin Levels of Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury after Abdominal Surgery

Abstract: Presepsin (PSP) is a viable biomarker for the detection of bacterial infection, but it lacks accuracy when acute kidney injury (AKI) develops. Herein, we evaluated the diagnostic and prognos- tic value of PSP in predicting postoperative sepsis after abdominal surgery respective to the degree of AKI. A total of 311 patients who underwent abdominal surgery and were admitted to a surgical intensive care unit were enrolled and classified into non-AKI, mild-AKI (stage 1, stage 2 and stage 3 without renal replacement therapy (RRT)) and severe-AKI (stage 3 with RRT) group, according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. In each group, PSP and other biomarkers were statistically analyzed between non-sepsis and postoperative sepsis at the admission (T0), 24 h (T1), 48 h (T2) and 72 h (T3) after surgery. In non-AKI and mild-AKI group, PSP levels were significantly higher in postoperative sepsis than non-sepsis group, whereas no difference was detected in the severe-AKI group. Cutoff values of PSP in the mild-AKI group for the prediction of postoperative sepsis were 544 pg/mL (AUC: 0.757, p < 0.001) at T0 and 458.5 pg/mL (AUC: 0.743, p < 0.001) at T1, significantly higher than in non-AKI group. In multivariate analysis, predictors of postoperative sepsis in the mild-AKI group were PSP at T2 (odds ratio (OR): 1.002, p = 0.044) and PSP at T3 (OR: 1.001, p = 0.049). PSP can be useful for predicting newly developed sepsis in patients with transient AKI after abdominal surgery with modified cutoff values.

Keywords: abdominal surgery; acute kidney injury; postoperative sepsis; presepsin