Complementary Use of Presepsin with the Sepsis-3 Criteria Improved Identification of High-Risk Patients with Suspected Sepsis

Abstract: Presepsin has been proposed as an early indicator for diagnosis and prognosis in sepsis. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic accuracy of presepsin levels and additional value for identifying high-risk patients when taken together with the current sepsis criteria. This was a single-center, prospective, observational study of patients with suspected sepsis. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. The prognostic performance of presepsin was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), according to the sepsis definition using the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score change (delta SOFA  2) and lactate level  2 mmol/L. A total of 755 patients were included. The AUC of presepsin for predicting 28-day mortality was 0.747. Presepsin showed adequate prognostic accuracy regardless of the delta SOFA score or lactate level. High presepsin levels (>755 pg/mL) showed an independent association with 28-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 5.17), and significant differences in mortality were observed, even in patients with non-sepsis low lactate level. Compared with a single criterion of the delta SOFA score or lactate, the addition of the high presepsin criterion significantly increased discrimination. Presepsin showed fair prognostic performance regardless of the clinical sepsis criteria. Complementary use of presepsin with the Sepsis-3 criteria may identify more high-risk septic patients and provide useful prognostic information.

Keywords: presepsin; sepsis; septic shock; mortality